“By studying microquasars such as MQ1, we get a glimpse of how the early universe evolved, how fast quasars grew and how much energy black holes provided to their environment.”As a comparison, the most powerful microquasar in our galaxy, known as SS433, is about 10 times less powerful than MQ1.” A team of Australian and American astronomers have been studying nearby galaxy M83 and have found this new superpowered small black hole, MQ1, the first object of its kind to be studied in this much detail.
Astronomers have found a few compact objects that are as powerful as MQ1, but have not been able to work out the size of the black hole contained within them until now. The team observed the MQ1 system with multiple telescopes and discovered that it is a standard-sized small black hole, rather than a slightly bigger version that was theorised to account for all its power.
Curtin University senior research fellow Dr Roberto Soria, who is part of the International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR) and led the team investigating MQ1, said it was important to understand how stars were formed, how they evolved and how they died, within a spiral shaped galaxy like M83.
The Hubble Space Telescope image below centers on the 100-million-solar-mass black hole at the hub of the neighboring spiral galaxy M31, or the Andromeda galaxy, the only galaxy outside the Milky Way visible to the naked eye and the only other giant galaxy in the local group. This is the sharpest visible-light image ever made of the nucleus of an external galaxy. The event horizon, the closest region around the black hole where light can still escape, is too small to be seen, but it lies near the middle of a compact cluster of blue stars at the center of the image.
The compact cluster of blue stars is surrounded by the larger “double nucleus” of M31, discovered with the Hubble Space Telescope in 1992. The double nucleus is actually an elliptical ring of old reddish stars in orbit around the black hole but more distant than the blue stars. When the stars are at the farthest point in their orbit they move slower, like cars on a crowded freeway. This gives the illusion of a second nucleus.
The blue stars surrounding the black hole are no more than 200 million years old, and therefore must have formed near the black hole in an abrupt burst of star formation. Massive blue stars are so short-lived that they would not have enough time to migrate to the black hole if they were formed elsewhere.
Astronomers are trying to understand how apparently young stars were formed so deep inside the black hole’s gravitational grip and how they survive in an extreme environment.
The black hole at the center of the super giant elliptical galaxy M87 in cluster Virgo fifty million light-years away is the most massive black hole for which a precise mass has been measured -6.6 billion solar masses. Orbiting the galaxy is an abnormally large population of about 12,000 globular clusters, compared to 150-200 globular clusters orbiting the Milky Way. The team theorized that the M87 black hole grew to its massive size by merging with several other black holes. M87 is the largest, most massive galaxy in the nearby universe, and is thought to have been formed by the merging of 100 or so smaller galaxies. The M87 black hole’s large size and relative proximity, astronomers think that it could be the first black hole that they could actually “see.”
In 2011, using the Frederick C. Gillett Gemini Telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, a team of astronomers calculated the black hole’s mass, which is vastly larger than the black hole in the center of the Milky Way, which is about 4 million solar masses. The black hole’s event horizon, 20 billion km across “could swallow our solar system whole.”
There is growing evidence that several million years ago the galactic center was the site of violent cosmic events. A pair of assistant professors – Kelly Holley-Bockelmann at Vanderbilt and Tamara Bogdanović at Georgia Institute of Technology – have come up with an explanation that fits these “forensic” clues, suggesting how a single event – a violent collision and merger between the galactic black hole and an intermediate-sized black hole in one of the small “satellite galaxies” that circle the Milky Way – could have produced the features that point to a more violent past for the galactic core.
The most dramatic of these extraordinary clues are the Fermi bubbles.In 2010, NASA’s Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope unveiled a previously unseen structure centered in the Milky Way –two gamma-ray-emitting bubbles that extend 25,000 light-years north and south of the galactic center that spans 50,000 light-years and may be the remnant of an eruption from a supersized black hole at the center of our galaxy.
The structure spans more than half of the visible sky, from the constellation Virgo to the constellation Grus, and it may be millions of years old. “We don’t fully understand their nature or origin,” said Doug Finkbeiner, an astronomer at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, who first recognized the feature by processing publicly available data from Fermi’s Large Area Telescope (LAT). The LAT is the most sensitive and highest-resolution gamma-ray detector ever launched. Gamma rays are the highest-energy form of light.
WARNING: THIS REPORT CONTAINS “SPECULATION” & “UNPROVEN THEORY”
Over the last few years, it has become overwhelmingly obvious to me, that the majority of the Scientific community, has become somewhat “jaded” towards any suggestion that is not 100% scientifically provable TODAY. By no means does this cover all science folk, but It worries me that a number of ‘eminently public’ scientists shun and mock any speculative suggestion made as rubbish.
Now, before we continue, let me just assert. As a budding member of the scientific world, I am fully aware of the need for any scientific theory to have results to back it up. BUT, lets just be a little realistic here. Without “speculation” there would be very few of the scientific discoveries that we have today.
As I stated before, we cannot tar the entire community with the same brush. For instance, the greatly eminent physicists Michio Kaku (one of the great heavy weights in physics today) along with Stephen Hawking (possibly THE heavy weight) are both prolific dreamers. Michio has written a whole library of books, where the “Physics of Tomorrow” are considered. From tri-corders to time travel. Without this sci-fi, head in the clouds approach to physics, the field would be a deadly boring world of mundane calculations and repetitive observation.
Stephen Hawking recorded a whole series based on physics principals that he dreams about, to the extent where he supposedly set up a dinner party for time travellers. Sending out invitations so that they might, in distant time be found by time travellers. Who would appear, at that the set time and date for this temporal gathering with canapés.
One of my most loved topics of thought, dream and conversation is time travel. Something that is greatly studied at this point in time. There are a great number of theories, papers and books all on this fascinating topic. The possibilities are endless. From time dilation at the event horizon of a black hole, to the microscopic wormholes of the quantum foam at Plank scales.1 Conversation of paradox and loopholes (the most famous of the time travel paradox is the grandfather paradox which postulates that, you travel back in time to kill your own grandfather, so that you were never born. However, that very action means that you do not exist too travel back to make the kill…..and therefore time is stuck in what becomes known as a causal loop) I have spent hours of my life, trying to unpick causal loops and paradox to see what effect specific actions would have on the overall temporal outcome. Needless to say, its normally the same outcome.
That was somewhat of a wormhole digression, so back to the original geodesic.
From the very earliest days of the science fiction genre, those of Jules Verne and his 1865 novel From the Earth to the Moon humanity has dreamt of things that were (at that point) technologically impossible. THIS WILL NOT ALWAYS BE THE CASE, as Joules proved (well, you know what I mean). He was a man far before his time. Yet, over a century on, people HAVE walked on the moon, and we are well on the way to walking on Mars. The Star Trek franchise is yet another science fiction series, from which we are now taking inspiration. Walk into the medical bay on the Enterprise and you would be sure to spot a tri-corder. Well, now there is such a device, being trialed in the US. Warp Drive is yet another of the Trek Tech which is taking on a physical presence in today’s physics research. (For more on this see the Wiki for Alcubierre Drive )
Scientists in the public eye, especially, need to actually get the younger generations to dream, to speculate. For only then, will the scientific field progress and grow.
- I note here that the use of wormholes doesn’t technically relate to “time travel” in the same sense of the time dilation of black hole theory. However, the use of the highly speculative wormhole would effectively cut journey times from one side of the universe to the other. So it’s more of a time saving, than a time travel.
THE centre of our galaxy is a place of extremes. “It has the highest density of stars, the fastest-moving stars, the most concentrated reservoir of gas and the strongest magnetic fields in the galaxy,” says Mark Morris, an astronomer at the University of California, Los Angeles. And lurking at its very heart is the most enigmatic object of all: our galaxy’s very own supermassive black hole.
In March 2012, Joseph Polchinski began to contemplate suicide — at least in mathematical form. A string theorist at the Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics in Santa Barbara, California, Polchinski was pondering what would happen to an astronaut who dived into a black hole. Obviously, he would die. But how?
According to the then-accepted account, he wouldn’t feel anything special at first, even when his fall took him through the black hole’s event horizon: the invisible boundary beyond which nothing can escape. But eventually — after hours, days or even weeks if the black hole was big enough — he would begin to notice that gravity was tugging at his feet more strongly than at his head. As his plunge carried him inexorably downwards, the difference in forces would quickly increase and rip him apart, before finally crushing his remnants into the black hole’s infinitely dense core.